theories of demand for money

It is the interaction of this need with the functions of the good or The month has four weeks. It is the total that must be divided among various forms of assets. Thus the speculative demand for money is a decreasing function of the rate of interest. Second, Friedman postulates a demand for money function quite different from that of Keynes. These points trace out the optimum portfolio curve, OPC, in the figure which shows that as the tangency points move upward from left to right, both the expected return and risk increase. This is illustrated in Figure 9. The right hand side of this equation PT represents the demand for money which, in fact, “depends upon the value of the transactions to be undertaken in the economy, and is equal to a constant fraction of those transactions.” MV represents the supply of money which is given and in equilibrium equals the demand for money. Why do people prefer liquidity? Baumol has shown that this relationship is not accurate. This is illustrated by the LM portion of the vertical axis. Keynes regarded transactions demand for money as a function of the level of income, and the relationship between transactions demand and income as linear and proportional. Terms of Service Privacy Policy Contact Us, Cash Balances Approach and Transactions Approach | Money, The Classical Theory of Interest (With Criticisms), Keynesianism versus Monetarism: How Changes in Money Supply Affect the Economic Activity, Keynesian Theory of Employment: Introduction, Features, Summary and Criticisms, Keynes Principle of Effective Demand: Meaning, Determinants, Importance and Criticisms, Classical Theory of Employment: Assumptions, Equation Model and Criticisms, Classical Theory of Employment (Say’s Law): Assumptions, Equation & Criticisms. Money - Money - Monetary theory: The relation between money and what it will buy has always been a central issue of monetary theory. They will, therefore, sell bonds in the present if they have any, and the speculative demand for money would increase. Bond prices and the rate of interest are inversely related to each other. Although money neither brings any return nor any risk, yet it is the most liquid form of assets which can be used for buying bonds any time. If the time between the incurring of expenditure and receipt of income is small, less cash will be held by the people for current transactions, and vice versa. Nominal income is measured in the prevailing units of currency. In the following section, we will see the theory of demand … FUCTIONS OF MONEYFUCTIONS OF MONEY There are two important functions:There are two important functions: Serves as store valueServes as store value Acts as medium of exchangeActs as medium of exchange On the basis of these two functions,On the basis of these two functions, economists have developed … c.The stock market crashes. At time 2/3f, the remaining bonds mature which the firm sells for transactions purposes until time t1 At time t1 when the year is over, the cash balance is zero and the firm is again ready for fresh receipts in the new year. According to Keynes, monetary changes affect economic activity indirectly through bond prices and interest rates. 200 and 240 crores at points C and D respectively in the figure. The demand function for business is roughly similar, although the division of total wealth and human wealth is not very useful since a firm can buy and sell in the market place and hire its human wealth at will. The demand for money theory is the main element of the monetary economics theory and an essential part in the macroeconomic theory. With the increase in income to Rs. Plagiarism Prevention 5. It indicates that “given the cost of switching into and out of securities, an interest rate above 8 per cent is sufficiently high to attract some amount of transactions balances into securities.” The backward slope of the Y, curve shows that at still higher rates, the transaction demand for money declines. As the rate of interest increases, from r1 to r2 and r3, risk averters hold successively more bonds OB2 and OB3 and reduce money to B2W and B3W in their portfolios. When all prices double, brokerage fee (b) will also double “so that larger cash balances will become desirable in order to avoid investments and withdrawals and the brokerage costs which they incur.” Thus the increase in the money value of transactions and in brokerage fees leads to a rise in the optimal demand for money in exactly the same proportion as the change in the price level. THEORIES OF DEMAND FOR MONEY They will, therefore, buy bonds to sell them in future when their prices rise in order to gain thereby. Similarly, businessmen keep cash in reserve to tide over unfavourable conditions or to gain from unexpected deals. It is, therefore, not possible to say that V will remain constant when M is changed. However, the risk averter possesses an intrinsic preference for liquidity which can be only offset by higher interest rates. If the transactions demand falls due to a change in the institutional and structural conditions of the economy, the value of k is reduced to say, 1/5, and the new transactions demand curve is k’Y. He is not prepared to accept more risk unless he can also expect greater expected return. It was barren and would not multiply, if stored in the form of wealth. At such times; the speculative demand for money would fall. This portion of the Ls curve is known as the liquidity trap. Equation (3) shows that the demand for real transactions balances “is proportional to the square root of the volume of transactions and inversely proportional to the square root of the rate of interest.” It means that the relationship between changes in the price level and the transactions demand for money is direct and proportional. They are like gamblers. c.The stock market crashes. The nominal rate of return may be zero as it generally is on currency, or negative as it sometimes is on demand deposits, subject to net service charges, or positive as it is on demand deposits on which interest is paid, and generally on time deposits. In Figure 9, budget lines r1 r2 and r3are tangents to I1, I2 and I3 curves at points T1, T2 and T, respectively. Therefore, “money held under the precautionary motive is rather like water kept in reserve in a water tank.” The precautionary demand for money depends upon the level of income, business activities, opportunities for unexpected profitable deals, availability of cash, the cost of holding liquid assets in bank reserves, etc. Thus the shape of the Ls curve shows that as the interest rate rises, the speculative demand for money declines, and with the fall in the interest rate, it increases. Nonetheless, with the cost per purchase and sale given, there is clearly some rate of interest at which it becomes profitable to switch what otherwise would be transactions balances into interest-bearing securities, even if the period for which these funds may be spared from transactions needs is measured only in weeks. 1600 crores, the transactions demand would decline to Rs. This is illustrated in Figure 8 where the horizontal axis measures risk (sR) and the vertical axis the expected returns (smR). They accept risk of loss in exchange for the income they accept from bonds. Content Filtration 6. His portfolio consists of a proportion M of Money and B of bonds where both M and Badduptol. 11 3. The Demand for Money Portfolio Theories of Money Demand •Portfolio theories are applicable when we consider broad money. b.Brokerage fees decline, making bond transactions cheaper. In Fisher’s “Equation of Exchange”. But every purchase involves non-interest costs in the form of brokerage fee, mailing, etc. Broadly, total wealth includes all sources of income or consumable services. This can be done by using current earnings to purchase non-human wealth or by using non-human wealth to finance the acquisition of skills. So he has Rs900 idle money in the first week, Rs600 in the second week, and Rs300 in the third week. Assume that at the beginning of the year, Y is the income of the firm which is equal to the real value of the transactions performed by it, and K is the size of each cash withdrawal at intervals over the year when the bonds are sold. Money demand in the Classical Q Theory follows from its mathematical statement using the equation of exchange and there is no need or attempt to identify the factors that determine the demand for money. Wealth can be held in five different forms: money, bonds, equities, physical goods, and human capital. Keynes, on the other hand, does not make such a distinction. On the other hand, if the rate of interest on bonds rises, the firm will find it profitable to invest in bonds and the optimal cash balance will be lower, and vice versa. “But it is expensive to tie up large amounts of capital in the form of cash balances. Thus a portion of money meant for transactions purposes can be spent on short-term interest-yielding securities. Thus the total demand for money can be derived by the lateral summation of the demand function for transactions and precautionary purposes and the demand function for speculative purposes, as illustrated in Figure 6 (A), (B) and (C). It is further assumed that this probability distribution has an expected value of zero and is independent of the level of the current rate of interest, r, on bonds. At time 1 /3f, the first half of the bonds purchased ($400) mature which it sells for cash until time 2/3f. Besides liquidity, variables are the tastes and preferences of wealth holders. 13.2.1 Classical approach to demand for money 13.2.2. Conversely, if the current rate of interest happens to be below the critical rate, businessmen expect it to rise and bond prices to fall. This relationship between an individual asset holder’s demand for money and the current rate of interest gives the discontinuous step demand for money curve LMSW. The non-interest costs such as brokerage fee, mailing expenses, etc. Panel (A) of the Figure shows OT, the transactions and precautionary demand for money at Y level of income and different rates of interest. Transaction demand for money – the money we need to purchase goods and services in day to day life. The way in which these factors affect money demand is usually explained in terms of the three motives for demanding money: the transactions, the precautionary, and the speculative motives. In the following section, we will see the theory of demand … Transactions balances are held because income received once a month is not spent on the same day. Half the bonds purchased carry maturity of 1 /3t (4 months) and the other (half) bonds carry maturity of 2/31 (8 months). This is because money acts as a medium of exchange and facilitates the exchange of goods and services. 1. Points on I2 curve are preferred to those on I1 curve. Lower yield on bonds induces people to put their money elsewhere, such as investment in new productive capital that will increase output and income. Variables other than income may affect the utility attached to the services of money which determine liquidity proper. There is a fixed cost in exchanging bonds for cash and vice versa. So a bond worth Rs100 (V) and carrying a 4 per cent rate of interest (r), gets an annual return (R) of Rs4, that is, V=Rs.4/0.04=Rs.100. But the conversion of human wealth into non- human wealth or the reverse is subject to institutional constraints. Thus point E on this line drawn as perpendicular from point T determines the portfolio mix of money and bonds. The two approaches to the liquidity preference theory are discussed below: William Baumol has made an important addition to the Keynesian transactions demand for money. 1200crores, the transactions demand would be Rs300crores at point B on the curve kY. Keynes visualised conditions in which the speculative demand for money would be highly or even totally elastic so that changes in the quantity of money would be fully absorbed into speculative balances. Fisherian Approach: To the classical economists, the demand for money is transactions demand for money. He has, therefore, to balance the income to be forgone by making fewer bond purchases against the expenses to be incurred by making large bond purchases. A Meta-Theory of the Demand for Money and the Theory of Utility1 Michael Ellwood 0044 7881 998649 michaeldavidellwood@yahoo.co.uk www.economictheoriespro.com Abstract This theory postulates that the demand for any good or service is derived from an underlying need. The transactions between money and bonds are transparent and occur in a steady stream. Changes in the transactions balances are the result of movements along a line like kY rather than changes in the slope of the line. It depends on both prices and quantities of goods traded. The Keynesian Theory of Demand for Money Keynes’ theory of demand for money is known as ‘Liquidity Preference Theory’. Theories of Demand for Money - Free download as Word Doc (.doc), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Thus plungers either go all the way, or not at all. The Demand for Money Portfolio Theories of Money Demand •Portfolio theories are applicable when we consider broad money. Now the problem is how to hold assets by a firm, “given that there exist interest-yielding bonds that can be owned as well as cash, and given that there is a fixed cost involved in exchanging bonds for cash.”. One of the primary research areas for this branch of economics is the quantity theory of money. On the first day of the second week, he sells bonds worth Rs.300 to cover cash transactions of the second week and his bond holdings are reduced to Rs. The former consist of transactions and precautionary motives, and the latter consist of the speculative motive for holding money. According to Keynes, it relates to “the need of cash for the current transactions of personal and business exchange.” It is further divided into income and business motives. James Tobin in his famous article “Liquidity Preference as Behaviour Towards Risk,” formulated the risk aversion theory of liquidity preference based on portfolio selection. Thus monetary changes have a weak effect on economic activity under conditions of absolute liquidity preference. I Liquidity preference theory of money demand posits that the demand for real money balances, m t = M t P t, is an increasing function of output, Y t, but a decreasing function of the nominal interest rate, i t: M t P t = L(i t,Y t +) I But then velocity: V t = P tY t M t = Y t L(i t,Y t) 21/37. In this case, changes in the quantity of money have no effects at all on prices or income. These are Rm, the yield on money; Rb, the yield on bonds; Re, the yield on securities; gp, the yield on physical assets; and u referring to other variables. Keynes theory is also called a demand-for-money theory. Friedman calls the ratio of non-human to human wealth or the ratio of wealth to income as w. 3. This equation is illustrated in Figure 1 where the line kY represents a linear and proportional relation between transactions demand and the level of income. Thus when the rate of interest rises to r8, the transactions demand declines to Rs. But it does not explain fully why people hold money. In the lower portion of the figure, the length of the vertical axis shows the wealth held by the risk averter in his portfolio consisting of money and bonds. The speculative (or asset or liquidity preference) demand for money is “for securing profit from knowing better than the market what the future will bring forth” .Individuals and businessmen having funds, after keeping enough for transactions and precautionary purposes, like to make a speculative gain by investing in bonds. It is, therefore, always profitable for the firm to spend idle funds on buying bonds which can be sold when it needs cash for transactions purposes. The following points highlight the three main approaches to the demand for money. 2. The Demand for Money: Theories, Evidence, and Problems (4th Edition): 9780065010985: Economics Books @ Amazon.com The pattern of a firm’s purchases remaining unchanged, the optimal cash balances (Y) will increase in exactly the same proportion as the price level (P). 300 which he will sell on the first day of the fourth week to meet his expenses for the last week of the month. The classical theory of demand for money is presented in the classical quantity theory of money and has two approaches: the Fisherman approach and the Cambridge approach. What is known as the Keynesian theory of the demand for money was first formulated by Keynes in his well-known book, The Genera’ Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936). 2 nd Edition. He will, therefore, convert this idle money into interest-bearing bonds, as illustrated in Panel (B) and (C) of Figure 2. It is the interaction of this need with the functions of the good or 3. Individuals hold some cash to provide for illness, accidents, unemployment and other unforeseen contingencies. In this respect, Tobin regards his theory as a logically more satisfactory foundation for liquidity preference than the Keynesian theory. The higher the rate of interest, the lower the speculative demand for money, and the lower the rate of interest, the higher the speculative demand for money. In this inventory theory of the demand for money, Baumol also emphasises that the demand for money is a demand for real balances. Friedman emphasises that the market interest rates play only a small part of the total spectrum of rates that are relevant. The figure also shows that as the rate of interest increases by equal increments from r1, to r2 to r3 risk averters hold bonds by decreasing increments, B2B3

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